Safety measures for construction on the hottest Pl

2022-10-22
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Safety measures for plateau construction

1. The primary harmful factor in plateau area

the geography of plateau area is special, the natural environment is despicable, and the climate premise is poor, which has a great impact on the function of the body. If we do not pay attention to prevention, it will often form the damage of body tissues and organs, leading to the emergence of acute and chronic plateau diseases. High altitude environmental hypoxia, strong ultraviolet radiation and boredom are the primary factors harmful to human body

(I) hypoxia: hypoxia is the root cause of plateau invasion. With the increase of altitude and the fall of atmospheric pressure, the air gradually becomes thinner and thinner, and the concentration of oxygen also increases. The oxygen content at an altitude of 3000 meters is 69% of that at the plain, and that at an altitude of 4000 meters is 52%. Hypoxemia is caused by lack of oxygen supply in human body, presenting a series of discomfort symptoms caused by environmental hypoxia: headache, dizziness, palpitation, chest tightness, shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, loss of sleep, etc., which is called "altitude reaction". The degree of reaction is different due to individual differences. Most of the reactions are serious, and even high altitude pulmonary edema, flat faint, high altitude stress gastrointestinal bleeding, etc. are life-threatening. Working and living in a hypoxic environment for a long time can cause changes in the function of tissues and organs, and suffer from altitude idiopathic diseases such as high-altitude heart disease, abnormal high-altitude blood pressure, high-altitude polycythemia, nail indentation and so on

(II) strong radiation: in plateau areas, the sunshine is long, the air is thin, dry and less cloudy, and the amount of solar radiation received by the surface increases with the increase of altitude. The intensity of ultraviolet radiation is large, especially the UVB, which is harmful to human body. At an altitude of 4000 meters, the UVB of 300 nm is 2.5 times that of plain areas, and the intensity of the radiation received by the human body is more significant, resulting in damage to the mucous membrane and skin of the exposed parts, Produce solar dermatitis, conjunctivitis, etc

(III) boring: the moisture of the atmosphere on the plateau increases with the increase of altitude. At an altitude of 3000 meters, the moisture of the atmosphere is only equivalent to 34% of the plain area, and at an altitude of 6000 meters, it is only 5% of the plain area. The increase of body water content is in direct proportion to the altitude. Dryness and hypoxia separate skin water, resulting in dryness of respiratory tract mucosa and whole body skin, and easy to promote pharyngitis, rhinitis, dry cough, chapped hands and feet, etc

2. Preparation for entering the plateau

(I) learn the knowledge of plateau protection

be familiar with the geographical characteristics of the entering area, the characteristics of natural environment and climate change, appreciate the factors that cause risks to the body, and grasp the knowledge of self-protection, self-care and self-monitoring

(II) mental adaptability training

understand all kinds of difficulties and unlucky identities that you will encounter when you enter the plateau, make ideological preparations, establish the determination belief to overcome difficulties, eliminate serious emotions and shocking thoughts, and deal with difficulties and unlucky identities calmly, so as to take the initiative to adapt to the Plateau and overcome the plateau

(III) comprehensive physical examination

before entering the plateau, the physical examination should be detailed and comprehensive. After examining the body's own physical condition, it is very important to whether you can go to the plateau and how to adapt to the plateau. The physical examination should include the following contents:

1. Ask in detail about life history, past history, family history, and history of altitude sickness

2. General examination: measure body weight, blood pressure, respiration, pulse, vital capacity, chest and abdomen, heart and lung, liver and spleen, limbs and spine and other physical examinations of the whole body

3. Laboratory examination: blood, blood cells and biochemistry, liver and kidney function, chest X-ray, electrocardiogram, lung function, B-ultrasound, etc

(V) indications of taboo or suspension of entry into the plateau

the impact of the plateau environment on the human body touches all parts of the body, and has a more serious impact on breathing, circulation, nerves and blood parts. Some parts of care have poor mental function or people suffering from diseases should not go to the plateau to do homework. According to the physical well-being, they can be divided into two categories: taboo or suspension to the plateau

1. It is forbidden to go to high altitude if you have the following diseases

(1) respiratory fragmentary diseases: chronic stingy tract obstructive diseases, bronchitis, bronchial asthma, active tuberculosis, silicosis and other respiratory fragmentary diseases and pulmonary dysfunction

(2) circulatory fragmentary: organic heart disease, obvious abnormal heart rate or resting heart rate of more than 90 beats/minute, hypertension (≥ 140/90 mmHg) and high altitude pulmonary edema, flat faint, high altitude heart disease and high altitude polycythemia with obvious symptoms

(3) blood fragmentary: polycythemia vera and various blood fragmentary diseases

(4) nervous fragmentary: severe neurasthenia and sleep disturbance, hysteria, epilepsy and high altitude shock

(5) digestive system: peptic ulcer disease in active stage, upper gastrointestinal bleeding and liver disease

(6) urinary fragmentary: serious renal disease and renal insufficiency

(7) endocrine fragmentary: adrenal gland, thyroid gland, gonad diseases and their function disorder

2. People who have the following circumstances to suspend entering the plateau

(1) have respiratory and pulmonary infections and are not cured

(2) paroxysmal tachycardia, when the heart rate is still above 90 beats/minute

(3) those who have fallen in emotion, are highly serious, and have not been well adjusted

3. Requirements on the way to the plateau

the way to the plateau is already the first step to the plateau. In order to adapt to the plateau smoothly, better and faster, which is beneficial to the task at the plateau, the protection on the way is also a critical link, and we should pay high attention to it

(I) travel and travel criteria

1. When entering, you should take safe and warm transportation to prevent people and goods from traveling together or in the open air. Work and rest regularly, and it is better to be at the mercy of 8 hours when driving every day. It is guaranteed to have sufficient rest and recover physical strength during sleep, so as to prevent adverse reactions caused by excessive decadence due to driving

2. When entering the plateau, we should adhere to the road rising criterion. Generally, when entering an area of 3000 meters, we should first stay at an altitude of 2600 ~ 2800 meters for 5 ~ 7 days, and then climb after slightly adapting to the plateau. Each time the altitude on the criterion is reduced by no more than 1000 meters, and stay at each altitude gradient for 2 ~ 3 days to slowly adapt

(II) individual matters that should be paid attention to

1. Pay attention to keeping warm, don't take off your clothes easily, and prevent catching a cold due to the change of plateau temperature. Don't eat too full. Follow the principle of early satiety, middle satiety and late satiety. We should pay attention to water compensation. It is better to drink 3.5 liters of water every day, but we should also prevent excessive drinking due to thirst. Avoid smoking and drinking

2. Don't interfere in vicious recreational activities during your stay on the way. You can take Enron, quiet, quiet, etc. properly according to the specific environment. Why is the universal test opportunity slipping during the process of tensile test? Do you know that uneven calm sleeping drugs can promote sleep quality and prevent falling asleep

3. Wear masks, goggles, sunscreen and other protective articles to reduce the exposure of exposed parts such as face, eyes and hands to strong light, strong ultraviolet and other damage

(II) medical and health care requirements

1. Strengthen visual inspection, grasp the physical environment of each colleague and the degree of altitude sickness, and pay special attention to the changes of susceptible people

2. In case of respiratory tract infection, severe altitude reaction or other abnormal environment, treat it in time or stop traveling. If it is serious, transfer it to medical institutions for diagnosis and treatment, so as to achieve early detection and treatment

3. Strengthen the advocacy of health care knowledge, teach the importance of medical care in the plateau travel, strengthen the awareness of self asylum of the travel staff, and strive to jointly handle medical care

4. Priorities when first arriving at high altitude

from plain areas or high altitude areas to higher altitude areas, the process of the body's adaptation to high altitude hypoxic environment is completed through the scheduling mechanism of various mental functions such as cardiopulmonary, respiratory circulation, blood and nerve center. Generally speaking, it takes at least 3 weeks to gradually reduce the altitude reaction until it is eliminated, and achieve relative adaptation to the hypoxic environment. This period is the most obvious period of the body's response to hypoxia and the frequent occurrence of acute severe altitude specific diseases, and it is also the most important stage of rest hygiene, rest shelter and health assurance, Attention should be paid to the protection of the following aspects:

(I) prevent too heavy physical load and reduce oxygen consumption

try to prevent heavy physical rest. For some unavoidable and necessary physical rest, the intermittent rest time should be long and the number of times should be large, and it is never hard to fight. In many days when you first arrive at the plateau, you should not engage in homework with medium rest intensity or above, such as earth excavation and transportation, mountain excavation and stone transportation, etc

(II) reasonably place work and rest, and ensure enough sleep time

1. Sleep for those who enter the plateau is one of the health care and physical recovery elements that cannot be ignored. We should face up to the primacy of ensuring sleep time and sleep quality, and should place enough sleep time and adopt appropriate ways to promote effective sleep time, so as to improve sleep quality

2. Ways and means conducive to sleep

(1) good sleeping environment, soft and dim indoor light, warm, noise less than 30 dB, temperature 16 ~ 18 ℃, novel and smooth air, air velocity less than 0.1 M/s

(2) do not eat too much 2 hours before going to bed, drink water (the forbidden device has drinks that increase nerve excitability, such as tea, coffee, etc.), and adopt the right lying position in the sleeping position to prevent covering your head

(3) soak feet with hot water or massage foot acupoints 20 minutes before going to bed

(4) under the guidance of the doctor, people with difficulty in sleeping take calming and sleeping drugs or traditional Chinese medicine to regulate their sleep

(III) strive to prevent and treat upper respiratory tract infections

1. Prevent upper respiratory tract infections

(1) change clothes in time and pay attention to keeping warm from the cold

(2) use masks to reduce the comfort of cold air and dust on respiratory tract

(3) take spicy soup to disperse cold and remove dampness

(4) do not eat raw and cold food, and avoid smoking and drinking less

2. Treatment of upper respiratory tract infection

(1) sore throat, cough, chills and fever. With the continuous rise of the price of plastic chemical raw materials with the development of the economy, the symptoms of aches and pains all over the body should be treated and treated in time, and there should be no delay or self-administration of antipyretic and analgesic drugs, delaying treatment

(2) upper respiratory tract infection in view of the benign plateau environment, the premise should be observed:

a. make full use of antibiotics in the initial stage

b, improve hypoxia and properly intermittent low flow oxygen inhalation

c. the fluid replenishment volume should not be too large and the speed should not be too fast. When the fluid replenishment volume exceeds 1000 ml, diuretics should be used appropriately, and the method of tonifying and connecting should be adopted to prevent water retention in the body

d, make up for large doses of multivitamins, and improve the body's resistance

(IV) ensure the supply of heat energy

1. After entering the plateau, whether in a warm condition or under the premise of physical load, because of the high altitude cold and the hope to help everyone adapt to hypoxia, the improvement of environmental body functional activities, the fundamental metabolism and energy consumption are higher than those in Pingyuan area, so the energy supply should be higher than the standard of the plain

2. Reasonably match the proportion of protein, fat and carbohydrate. When you first arrive at the plateau, high carbohydrate is beneficial to the establishment of adaptation mechanism, because its proportion is protein 10 ~ 15%, fat 20 ~ 25%, and carbohydrate should be higher than 60 ~ 70%

3. Due to hypoxia at high altitude, the digestive function decreases, and the diet is mainly provided with digestible and acceptable food. Those who have the premise eat less and more meals, eat as you are hungry, maintain the heat supply or eat full breakfast, eat good Chinese food and eat less dinner. The energy distribution of three meals breakfast accounts for 30% of the total heat supply of the whole day, 40 ~ 50% of Chinese food and 20 ~ 30% of dinner

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